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Marange, Chiadzwa and other diamond fields and the Kimberley Process - Index of articles
world of Marange mining firms
Mail & Guardian (SA)
July 06, 2012
Along with accusations
that companies are not paying their dues, the owners remain a mystery,
writes Jason Moyo. Zimbabwe's Mines Minister Obert Mpofu estimates
that the country's vast diamond wealth could generate $2-billion
a year, but it is increasingly unclear who is benefiting more -
the government or the faceless shareholders who own the miners.
still queuing up to get in on the action and South Africa's
Utho Capital is planning to set up a forum of the world's
top diamond companies in Zimbabwe.
fields cover 123000 hectares, with only 54000 hectares being
mined. The remainder is up for grabs, according to the Zimbabwe
Mining Development Company (ZMDC), the state mining firm.
But even as
international interest grows, the ownership of mines remains hidden
under layers of secrecy.
There are currently
five companies operating in Marange and other concessions in the
east of the country.
is the biggest miner in the diamond fields and there is conflict
over how much it owes the government and who really owns it.
Tendai Biti recently said the government had received nothing from
Anjin since it opened in 2009. But Munyaradzi Machacha, an Anjin
director, said Biti's expectations had been too high to begin
contributed $30-million to the fiscus. A single carat is valued
at $60 and not the $1500 projected by the minister," Machacha
told visiting European ambassadors last week. "He should stop
persecuting innocent companies like ours."
But it is a
fact that officially nobody, not even the finance minister, knows
who owns Anjin, something that reflects the murky world of Zimbabwe's
Minister Gift Chimanikire said that the Chinese owned 50% of
Anjin, the Zimbabwe Defence Industries (ZDI), a state-owned ammunitions-maker,
owned 40% and the ZMDC held the remainder.
But Biti said
the ZMDC did not have any stake in it and he did not know who the
other shareholders were.
This week, there
was more controversy - apparently the ZDI is not a shareholder
in Anjin either. ZDI chief executive Tshinga Dube, a retired colonel,
denied that ZDI owned a stake in Anjin. "Such an opportunity
has not featured on our radar," he said.
then is: Who owns Anjin and who stands to benefit from its potentially
What is known
is that half of Anjin is owned by Chinese firm Anhui Foreign Economic
Construction. As part of the deal, Anhui is building a large military
complex on the northern outskirts of Harare, which is being partly
funded by a $98-million loan from China's Eximbank.
But what is
less well known is the identity of Anhui's partner, reported
to be Matt Bronze, a shelf company bought by the military to house
its investments. Matt Bronze's directors have never been named
publicly, but Anjin's Zimbabwean directors are almost entirely
from the security forces.
Diamonds is a joint venture between the ZMDC and several investors,
among them South Africa's Reclamation Group, which has established
links with Zimbabwean state companies.
Old Mutual holds
a minority stake in the firm, although it has said it would be reviewing
shareholders is ex-army figure Robert Mhlanga, once President Robert
Mugabe's pilot and now one of Zimbabwe's richest men.
Weeks ago, it was reported that Mhlanga was building a mansion next
to the Zimbali Golf Estate in KwaZulu-Natal. He insists he bought
the property 10 years ago, before he went into diamonds.
In 2002, Mhlanga
was a key witness in the treason case brought against Prime Minister
Morgan Tsvangirai, leader of the opposition Movement for Democratic
Skyview Minerals, Mhlanga owns shares in Mbada Diamonds and has
other interests in Zimbabwe, Angola and elsewhere in the region.
said Mbada had made $600-million since 2009. Half of that had been
handed to the government in taxes and other fees. The remainder
went into working capital and to Reclamation.
In the first
quarter of this year, Mbada exported $87.6-million worth of diamonds.
Stung by United
States-imposed sanctions, Mbada earlier this year claimed it was
under attack from a "jealous and outright anti-Zimbabwe and
is wholly owned by the ZMDC, after the government cancelled a joint
venture with Canadile, over claims the consortium had defrauded
Lovemore Kurotwi has claimed Mpofu demanded a $10-million bribe
in exchange for a mining licence. Kurotwi wrote a letter to Mugabe
detailing Mpofu's alleged demands.
Dube is chairperson
of Marange Resources. It exported $11.7-million worth of diamonds
in the first quarter of the year.
DMC is a joint
venture between the ZMDC and Pure Diam, based in Dubai. Pure Diam's
shareholders are unknown. DMC made $38.9-million in the first quarter.
Zimbabwe-Ozgeo is a partnership between Zimbabwe and Russian investors.
The company expects to begin operations soon in the eastern Chimanimani
area. Russia, a long-time ally, has separately agreed to supply
military helicopters in exchange for platinum concessions, according
to the Russian newspaper Kommersant.
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